Quarterly reports are issued in three months by every company as most of the companies have their financial year end by dec 31st and quarters that end on march 31st june 30 september 30 and dec 31st. Other than these some companies follow a different calendar and their report ends at different times.
These reports contain Information like accounting and financial data of the company which includes the gross revenue net profit operational expenses and cash flow the securities and exchange commission requires issues of those share which are traded publicly quarterly reports are accompanied by the company’s management in which the key performance indicator data is presented in front of the investors and analysts. Management of firms provide guidance for future financial results as well these are routinely followed by question and answers as well.
Analysts are following those companies which often publish estimates of key metrics for future reporting periods these estimates are considered by the financial sectors companies that exceed these expectations are said to have beaten the expectations and companies which have their performances in line with estimates are said to have beaten the expectations and the companies whose results are below are said to have missed the expectations.